سنجش سطوح مشارکت تماشاگرن لیگ برتر فوتبال ایران در قالب مدل پیوستار روانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت ورزشی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز

2 استاد/ دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز

3 دانشیار/ دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکزی

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، سنجش سطوح مشارکت تماشاگران لیگ برتر فوتبال ایران درقالب مدل پیوستار روانی بود. 842 نفر از تماشاگران 10 تیم لیگ، به‌صورت نمونه‌گیری طبقه‌ای- ‌تصادفی انتخاب شدند و مقیاس ارزیابی ابعاد مشارکت ورزشی فانک (2008) را داوطلبانه تکمیل کردند. براساس ابعاد مشارکت و درقالب این مدل، یافته‌ها نشان داد که پایین‌ترین و بالاترین سطوح مشارکت، به‌‌ترتیب مربوط به سطوح آگاهی (2 درصد) و دلبستگی (78 درصد) است. یافته‌های تحلیل عاملی تأییدی نشان داد که مدل چندبعدی مشارکت ابزار سودمندی برای بخش‌بندی تماشاگران براساس سطوح مشارکت آن‌ها است. نتایج نشان داد که بیشتر تماشاگران در سطح دلبستگی قرار دارند و بالاترین سطح در این مدل وفاداری فرد است که به‌عنوان تعهد او نسبت به ورزش تعریف می‌شود؛ بنابراین، مدیران رویدادها می‌توانند با تقویت دلبستگی به وفاداری تماشاگران دست یابند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Measuring Spectators’ Involvement Levels in Iranian Pro League of Football within the Framework of the Psychological Continuum Model (PCM)

نویسندگان [English]

  • behzad soheili 1
  • farshad tojari 2
  • ali zarei 3
1 educator/ Islamic Azad university of malard
2 Professor of Sport management/ Islamic Azad University of Tehran central
3 Associate professor in Sport Management/Islamic Azad University of Tehran central branch
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to measure spectators’ involvement levels in Iranian pro league of football within the framework of the psychological continuum model. 842 spectators from ten teams of that league were selected through stratified-random sampling, and they completed the assessment scale of Funk’s sports involvement dimensions (2008) voluntarily. According to the involvement dimensions and within the framework of this model, the findings indicated that the lowest and highest involvement levels are respectively related to the levels of awareness (2%) and attachment (78%). The findings of confirmatory factor analysis showed that involvement multi-dimensional model is a useful tool for segmenting spectators based on their involvement levels. The results showed that most spectators are situated at the level of attachment, and the highest level in this model is one’s loyalty, which is defined as his commitment to sport. Therefore, the event managers can achieve spectators’ loyalty by reinforcing attachment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Psychological Continuum Model
  • Involvement
  • Spectator
  • Pro League
  • Football
Barnett, L. A. (2005). Measuring the ABCs of leisure experience: Awareness, boredom, challenge, distress. Leisure Sciences, 27(2), 131-155.
Beaton, A. A., & Funk, D. C. (2008). An evaluation of theoretical frameworks for studying physically active leisure. Leisure Sciences, 30(1), 53-70.
Beaton, A. A., Funk, D. C., & Alexandris, K. (2009). Operationalizing a theory of participation in physically active leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(2), 177-203.
Beaton, A. A., Funk, D. C., Ridinger, L., & Jordan, J. (2011). Sport involvement: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Sport Management Review, 14(2), 126-140.
Bee, C. C., & Havitz, M. E. (2010). Exploring the relationship between involvement, fan attraction, psychological commitment and behavioural loyalty in a sports spectator context. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 11(2), 37-54.
Behnam, M., Khabiri, M., Halabian, S., Ahmadi, H. R., & Bakhshandeh, H. (2014). The investigation of fans' involvement levels in selected teams of the Football premier league of Iran based on psychological continuum model.Journal of Sport Management, 6(1), 135-155.
Bentler, P. M., & Chou, C.-P. (1987). Practical issues in structural modeling. Sociological Methods & Research, 16(1), 78-117.
Brandon-Lai, S. A., Funk, D. C., & Jordan, J. S. (2015). The Stage-Based Development of Behavioral Regulation within the Context of Physically Active Leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(4), 401-424Buchanan, T. (1985). Commitment and leisure behavior: A theoretical perspective. Leisure Sciences, 7, 401- 420.
10. Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99-113.
Doyle, J. P., Kunkel, T., & Funk, D. C. (2013). Sports spectator segmentation: examining the differing psychological connections among spectators of leagues and teams. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 14(2), 20-36.
Filo, K., Funk, D. C., & Alexandris, K. (2008). Exploring the role of brand trust in the relationship between brand associations and brand loyalty in sport and fitness. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 3(1-2), 39-57.
Filo, K. R., Funk, D. C., & O’Brien, D. (2008). It’s really not about the bike: Exploring attraction and attachment to the events of the Lance Armstrong Foundation. Journal of Sport Management, 22(5), 501-525.
Filo, K., Funk, D. C., & O’Brien, D. (2009). The meaning behind attachment: Exploring camaraderie, cause, and competency at a charity sport event. Journal of Sport Management, 23(3), 361-387.
Funk, D. C. (2008). Consumer behaviour in sport and events: MarketingAction: Amsterdam Butterworth-Heinemann/Elsevior.
Funk, D. C., Beaton, A., & Pritchard, M. (2011). The stage-based development of physically active leisure: A recreational golf context. Journal of Leisure Research, 43(2), 268-289.
Funk, D. C., & James, J. (2001). The psychological continuum model: A conceptual framework for understanding an individual's psychological connection to sport. Sport Management Review, 4(2), 119-150.
Funk, D. C., & James, J. D. (2006). Consumer loyalty: The meaning of attachment in the development of sport team allegiance. Journal of Sport Management, 20(2), 189-217.
Funk, D. C., Mahony, D. F., Nakazawa, M., & Hirakawa, S. (2000). Spectator motives: Differentiating among objects of attraction in professional football. European Journal for Sport Management, 7, 51-67.
Funk, D. C., Ridinger, L. L., & Moorman, A. M. (2004). Exploring origins of involvement: Understanding the relationship between consumer motives and involvement with professional sport teams. Leisure Sciences, 26(1), 35-61.
Gladden, J. M., & Funk, D. C. (2001). Understanding brand loyalty in professional sport: Examining the link between brand associations and brand loyalty. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 3(1), 54-81.
Gladden, J. M., Milne, G. R., & Sutton, W. A. (1998). A conceptual framework for assessing brand equity in Division I college athletics. Journal of Sport Management, 12(1), 1-19.
Heere, B., & Dickson, G. (2008). Measuring attitudinal loyalty: Separating the terms of affective commitment and attitudinal loyalty. Journal of Sport Management, 22(2), 227-239.
Iwasaki, Y., & Havitz, M. E. (2004). Examining relationships between leisure involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty to a recreation agency. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(1), 45, 72.
Jackson, E. L., Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. (1993). Negotiation of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 15(1), 1-11
James, J. D., Kolbe, R. H., & Trail, G. T. (2002). Psychological connection to a new sport team: Building or maintaining the consumer base? Sport Marketing Quarterly, 11, 215- 225.
Kerstetter, D. L., & Kovich, G. M. (1997). An involvement profile of Division I women’s basketball spectators. Journal of Sport Management, 11(3), 234-249.
Kyle, G., Graefe, A., Manning, R., & Bacon, J. (2004). Effect of activity involvement and place attachment on recreationists' perceptions of setting density. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(2), 209.
Laverie, D. A., & Arnett, D. B. (2000). Factors affecting fan attendance: The influence of identity salience and satisfaction. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(2), 225, 246.
Lough, N. L., & Kim, A.-R. (2004). Analysis of sociomotivations affecting spectator attendance at women's professional basketball games in South Korea. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13, 35-42.
McDonald, H., Karg, A. J., & Vocino, A. (2013). Measuring season ticket holder satisfaction: Rationale, scale development and longitudinal validation. Sport Management Review, 16(1), 41-53.
Murrell, A. J., & Dietz, B. (1992). Fan support of sport teams: The effect of a common group identity. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 14(1), 28-39.
Quick, S. (2000). Contemporary sport consumers: Some implications of linking fan typology with key spectator variables. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 9(3), 149-156.
Rothschild, M. L. (1984). Perspectives on involvement: Current problems and future directions. Advances in Consumer Research, 11, 216 – 217.
Taghizadeh, F., Ghorbani, H. O., & Behnam, M. (2015). The psychological continuum model: Examination of spectators' involvement levels in the football. Sport Science, 8(Suppl. 1), 64-71.
Woo, B., Trail, G. T., Kwon, H. H., & Anderson, D. (2009). Testing models of motives and points of attachment among spectators in college football. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 18, 38- 53.