خود‌پندارة تحصیلی و خود‌پندارة بدنی دختران دانش‌آموز ورزشکار و غیر‌ورزشکار چگونه است؟

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری رفتار حرکتی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه جامع امام حسین، تهران

3 استادیار گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، تهران

4 دانشیار گروه رفتار حرکتی پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، توصیف و تبیین ارتباط بین خود­پندارة بدنی و خود­پندارة تحصیلی دانش ­آموزان ورزشکار و غیر­ورزشکار از طریق متغیرهای فعالیت بدنی و وضعیت اقتصادی- اجتماعی خانواده بود. تعداد 1063 دانش ­آموز ورزشکار و غیرورزشکار 13 تا 16 ساله از مناطق مختلف شهر تهران به صورت خوشه ای تصادفی انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات پژوهش حاضر شامل فرم کوتاه پرسش­نامة خود­توصیفی بدنی مارش و همکاران (2010)، مقیاس خود­پندارة تحصیلی دلاور (1998) و فرم اطلاعات مربوط به سطح اقتصادی-اجتماعی بود.

نتایج آزمون تحلیل واریانس نشان داد خود­پندارة بدنی و خود­پندارة تحصیلی دختران ورزشکار از دختران غیر­ورزشکار بالاتر است. همچنین نتایج آزمون تحلیل رگرسیون چند متغیره بیانگر آن بود که فعالیت بدنی خود­پندارة بدنی و خود­پندارة تحصیلی دختران را پیش ­بینی می ­کند. طبق یافته های این پژوهش، خود­پندارة بدنی دختران نوجوان با فعالیت بدنی و وضعیت اقتصادی-اجتماعی خانواده آنها ارتباط معناداری دارد. در این پژوهش ارتباط مثبت بین خود­پندارة بدنی و سطح تحصیلات مادر مشاهده شد. همچنین مشخص شد خود­پندارة تحصیلی با فعالیت بدنی و سطح بالای تحصیلات مادر در ارتباط است. از مجموع نتایج پژوهش حاضر می­توان نتیجه گرفت خود­پندارة بدنی و خود­پندارة تحصیلی با فعالیت بدنی و سطح تحصیلات مادر دختران دانش­آموز ارتباط دارد و شرکت در فعالیت بدنی موجب بهبود خود­پندارة بدنی و تحصیلی می­شود. از این رو گسترش مشارکت دانش ­آموزان در فعالیت بدنی به منظور افزایش خود­پندارة بدنی و تحصیلی حائز اهمیت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

How are Academic and Physical Self-Concept in Student Female Athlete and Non-Athlete?

نویسندگان [English]

  • Minoo Dokht Malekian 1
  • Mohammad VaezMousavi 2
  • Abdollah Ghasemi 3
  • Ali Kashi 4
1 Motor Behavior Ph.D. student, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor of Imam Hossein University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study is to scrutinize the relationship between physical and academic self-concept among athlete and non-athlete female students. Physical activity and family socioeconomic status are considered as the variables of study. A number of 1063 athlete and non-athlete students, aged from 13 to 16, were randomly selected from different regions of Tehran. Data was gathered by Short-Form of Physical Self- Description Questionnaire (SFPSDQ) (Marsh et al, 2010), Academic Self-concept Scale (Delavar, 1998), and Social-Economic-Status information form. The results of univariate analysis showed that athlete females’ physical and academic self-concept are significantly higher than non-athlete females. Also, univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis reveals that physical activity significantly predicts female' physical self-concept and academic self-concept. Based on findings of the study, adolescent females' physical self-concept is correlated with physical activity and socioeconomic status of their families. In addition, a positive relationship between physical self-concept and mother's level of education is found. The study also displayed that academic self-concept is related to physical activity and high level of mother's education.
According to the results, it can be concluded that physical self-concept and academic self-concept are related to physical activity and mother's level of education; and participation in physical activity improves physical and academic self-concept. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the level of students’ participation in physical activity to enhance physical and academic self-concept.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical Self- Concept
  • Academic self- concept
  • Physical Activity
  • Adolescen

1. Abdoshahi, M., & Vaezmousavi, M. (2017). Psychometric properties of Persian version of sport grid-revised: Distinguishing arousal from cognitive anxiety in disaster theory, Sport Psychology Studies, 20, 49-72. In Persian
2. Abdolmaleki, Z., Bahram, A., Sedgh Poor, S., & Abdolmaleki, F. (2011). A Structural equation model of the relationship between socioeconomic status and physical self-concept among adolescent girls: body composition and physicsl activity as the mediators. Motor Behavior (Research on Sport Science) 2(7), 13-30. In Persian
3. Abdolmaleki, Z., Bahram, A., & Sedgh Poor, S. (2013). Psychometric Evaluation of Short Form Self-Descriptive Questionnaire in Students of Tehran. Journal of Motor Behavior, 4(11). 13-43. In Persian
4. Babic, M. J., Morgan, P. J., Plotnikoff, R. C., Lonsdale, C., White, R. L., & Lubans, D. R. (2014). Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(11), 1589-1601.
5. Baghaeian, M., Bahram, A., & Khalaji.,H. (2013). The Effect of Gender and Physical Activity Level on Physical Self-Concept in Middle School Students. Journal of Educational Innovation, 12(3), 82-94. In Persian
6. Broh, B. A. (2002). Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: Who benefits and why? Sociology of education, 69-95.
7. Castelli, D. M., Hillman, C. H., Buck, S. M., & Erwin, H. E. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in third-and fifth-grade students. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29(2), 252-239.
8. Centeio, E. E., Somers, Ch. L., Moore, E. W. G., Garn, A., Kulik, N., Martin, J., Shen, B., & McCaughtry, N. (2020). Considering Physical Well-Being, Self-perceptions, and Support Variables in Understanding Youth Academic Achievement, The Journal of Early Adolescence, 40(1), 134-157
9. Christiansen, L. B., Lund-Cramer, P., Brondeel, R., Smedegaard, S., Holt, A.-D., & Skovgaard, T. (2018). Improving children's physical self-perception through a school-based physical activity intervention: The Move for Well-being in School study. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 14, 31-38.
10. Chanal, J. P., Sarrazin, P. G., Guay, F., & Boiché, J. (2009). Verbal, mathematics, and physical education self-concepts and achievements: An extension and test of the Internal/External Frame of Reference Model. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(1), 61-66.
11. Gerdy, J. R. (2000). Sports in school: The future of an institution: Teachers College Press.
12. Crocker, P. R., Sabiston, C. M., Kowalski, K. C., McDonough, M. H., & Kowalski, N. (2006). Longitudinal assessment of the relationship between physical self-concept and health-related behavior and emotion in adolescent girls. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18(3), 185-200.
13. De Bruin, A. K., Woertman, L., Bakker, F. C., & Oudejans, R. R. (2009). Weight-related sport motives and girls’ body image, weight control behaviors, and self-esteem. Sex Roles, 60(9-10), 628-641
14. Dana, A., & Soltani, N. (2019). The Effectiveness of Communication Skills Training on the Resilience and Exercise Self-Efficacy of Adolescent Athletes, Sport Psychology Studies, (26), 91-106. In Persian
15. Dollman, J., & Lewis, N. R. (2010). The impact of socioeconomic position on sport participation among South Australian youth. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 13(3), 318-322 -
16. Foster, B. A., Weinstein, K., Mojica, C. M., & Davis, M. M. (2019). Parental Mental Health Associated with Child Overweight and Obesity, examined within Rural and Urban Settings, Stratified by Income. J. Rural Health, 1–11.
17. Field, T., Diego, M., & Sanders, C. E. (2001). exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics. Adolescence, 36(141), 105.
18. Goodway, J. D., Ozmun, J. C., & Gallahue, D. L. (2019). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
19. Garn, A. C., Moore, E. W., & Centeio, E. E. (2019). physical self-concept, and enjoyment, journal of Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 45.
20. Gronmo, S.J., Augestad., L.B. (2000). Physical Activity, Self-concept, and Global Self-worth of Blind Youths in Norway and France. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 94 (8), 522-527.
21. Hadley, A. M., Hair, E. C., & Moore, K. A. (2008). Assessing what kids think about themselves: a guide to adolescent self-concept for out-of-school time program practitioners. Child trends, 32, 1-6.
22. Haubenstricker, J., & Seefeldt, V. (1986). Acquisition of motor skills during childhood. Physical activity and well-being, 41-102.
23. Heatherton, T. F., & Vohs, K. D. (2000). Interpersonal evaluations following threats to self: Role of self-esteem. Journal of personality and social psychology, 78(4), 725.
24. Karami, B., Allah, K. A., & Hashemi, N. (2013). Effectiveness of cognitive and metacognitive strategies training on creativity, achievement motive and academic self-concept.
25. Li, R., Bunke, S., & Psouni, E. (2016). Attachment relationships and physical activity in adolescents: The mediation role of physical self-concept. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22, 160-169.
26. Lindwall, M., Asci, H., & Crocker, P. (2014). The physical self in motion: within-person change and associations of change in self-esteem, physical self-concept, and physical activity in adolescent girls. Journal of Sport Exerc Psychol, 36(6), 551-563. doi:10.1123/jsep.2013-0258
27. Lindwall, M., & Hassmen, P. (2004). The role of exercise and gender for physical self-perceptions and importance ratings in Swedish university students. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 14(6), 373-380. doi:10.1046/j.1600-0838.2003.372.x
28. Lindwall, M., & Lindgren, E.-C. (2005). The effects of a 6-month exercise intervention programme on physical self-perceptions and social physique anxiety in non-physically active adolescent Swedish girls. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6(6), 643-658.
29. Mahoney, J. L., & Cairns, R. B. (1997). Do extracurricular activities protect against early school dropout? Developmental psychology, 33(2), 241.
30. Marsh, H. W., & Hau, K.-T. (2004). Explaining paradoxical relations between academic self-concepts and achievements: Cross-cultural generalizability of the internal/external frame of reference predictions across 26 countries. Journal of educational psychology, 96(1), 56.
31. Marsh, H. W., & Kleitman, S. (2003). School athletic participation: Mostly gain with little pain. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25(2), 205-228.
32. Marsh, H. W., Martin, A. J., & Jackson, S. (2010). Introducing a short version of the physical self description questionnaire: new strategies, short-form evaluative criteria, and applications of factor analyses. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32(4), 438-482.
33. Marsh, H. W., Morin, A. J., & Parker, P. D. (2015). Physical self-concept changes in a selective sport high school: a longitudinal cohort-sequence analysis of the big-fish-little-pond effect. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 3, 150-160, (2)7. doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0224.
34. Özdemir, R. A., Çelik, Ö., & Aşçı, F. H. (2010). Exercise interventions and their effects on physical self-perceptions of male university students. International Journal of Psychology, 45(3), 174-181.v
35. Padial-Ruz, R., Pérez-Turpin, J. A., Cepero-González, M., & Zurita-Ortega, F. (2020). Effects of Physical Self-Concept, Emotional Isolation, and Family Functioning on Attitudes towards Physical Education in Adolescents: Structural Equation Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 1, 94.
36. Pan, C.-C., Maïano, C., & Morin, A. J. (2018). Physical self-concept and body dissatisfaction among Special Olympics athletes: A comparison between sex, weight status, and culture. Research in developmental disabilities, 76, 1-11.
37. Shavelson, R. J., Hubner, J. J., & Stanton, G. C. (1976). Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations. Review of educational research, 46(3), 407-441.
38. Seidsalehi, M., & Yonesi, J. (2015). Explaining role of academic self-efficacy on academic performance and academic motivation based on social support, academic self-concept, and personality traits: structural equation modeling. Research in School and Virtual Learning, 3(9), 7-20.
39. Sibley, B. A., & Etnier, J. L. (2003). The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15(3), 243-256.
40. Stegman, M., & Stephens, L. J. (2000). Athletics and Academics: Are They Compatible? High School Magazine, 7(6), 36-39.
41. Tremblay, M. S., Inman, J. W., & Willms, J. D. (2000). The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem, and academic achievement in 12-year-old children. Pediatric Exercise Science,12(3), 312-323.
42. Ward, D. G., & Cox, R. H. (2004). The Sport Grid-Revised as a Measure of Felt Arousal and Cognitive Anxiety, Journal of sport behavior, 27(1). 93-107.
43. Wolff, F., Nagy, N., Helm, F., & Möller, J. (2017). Testing the internal/external frame of reference model of academic achievement and academic self-concept with open self-concept reports. Learning and Instruction
44. Yu, C., Chan, S., Cheng, F., Sung, R., & Hau, K. T. (2006). Are physical activity and academic performance compatible? Academic achievement,conduct, physical activity and self‐esteem of Hong Kong Chinese primary school children. Educational Studies, 32(4), 331-341.
45. Zeidabadi, R., Rezaie, F., & Motashareie, E. (2014). Psychometric properties and normalization of persian version of Ottawa mental skills assessment tools (OMSAT-3), Sport Psychology Studies, 3(7), 63-82. In Persian