ارتباط فعالیت بدنی با درگیری تحصیلی و عوامل روان‌شناختی دانشجویان در دوران قرنطینه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد رفتارحرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه رفتارحرکتی، دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد روان شناسی تربیتی، دانشکده روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

 هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی ارتباط بین فعالیت بدنی، درگیری تحصیلی در آموزش مجازی، استرس، اضطراب و افسردگی در دانشجویان در دوران قرنطینه بود. پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی-همبستگی بود که با استفاده از پرسش‌نامه به‌صورت مقطعی انجام شد. جامعه موردنظر پژوهش دانشجویانی بودند که از طریق آموزش مجازی در منزل مشغول به تحصیل بودند.287 نفر به‌عنوان نمونه در این پژوهش شرکت داشتند که از روش نمونه‌گیری گلوله برفی برای انتخاب نمونه‌ها استفاده شد. بررسی نتایج به‌صورت ترکیبی از روش‌های کمی و کیفی بود در روش کیفی از راهنمای تفسیر پرسش‌نامه‌های فعالیت بدنی و استرس، اضطراب و افسردگی به بررسی فردبه‌فرد افراد به‌صورت رتبه‌ای پرداخته شد. در روش کمی از دو دسته آمار توصیفی و استنباطی استفاده شد. برای آمار توصیفی از شاخص‌های گرایش به مرکز و پراکندگی و برای آمار استنباطی با توجه به عدم نرمال بودن داده‌ها از آزمون همبستگی اسپیرمن استفاده شد. نتایج این پژوهش در بررسی‌های کیفی نشان داد که 68 درصد دانشجویان ازنظر فعالیت بدنی غیرفعال هستند و 23 درصد از حالت نرمال استرس، 81 درصد از حالت نرمال اضطراب و 49 درصد از حالت نرمال افسردگی خارج‌شده‌اند. در بررسی‌های کمی آزمون همبستگی اسپیرمن نشان داد که درگیری تحصیلی دانشجویان در آموزش مجازی دانشگاه با فعالیت بدنی و سن دارای ارتباط معنادار و مثبت و با افسردگی و اضطراب دارای همبستگی معنادار معکوس بود. همچنین فعالیت بدنی با استرس، اضطراب و افسردگی همبستگی معنادار معکوس داشت.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship Between Physical Activity, Academic Engagement, and Psychological Factors Among University Students During the Quarantine

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Mahdiloo 1
  • Ehsan Zareiyan 2
  • AmirHosein Jamshidi 3
1 Master of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran
3 Master Student of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The present study was a descriptive- correlative one which has done by using a questionnaire cross-sectary. The research was a descriptive correlational study and the study population consisted of all the students of Allmeh Tabataba’i University. For this aim, 287 students voluntarily participated in this research via snowball sampling. To analyze the data, both quantitive and qualitative methods were used. Also, considering that the distribution was not normal, we used the Spearman test to investigate the relationship between the variables. The results showed that 68% of the university students were physically inactive, also, 81%, 21%, and 49% of them reported high scores on anxiety, stress, and depression, respectively. The results showed positive and significant relationships between academic engagement, physical activity, and age. There was also an inversed relationship between academic engagement, depression, and anxiety.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Physical Activity
  • Psychological factors
  • Academic Engagement
  • University Students
  • COVID-19
1.    Asmundson, Gordon JG, & Taylor, Steven. (2020). How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 71, 102211.
2.    Barbour, Krista A, Edenfield, Teresa M, & Blumenthal, James A. (2007). Exercise as a treatment for depression and other psychiatric disorders: a review. Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and prevention, 27(6), 359-367.
3.    Batelaan, Neeltje M, Seldenrijk, Adrie, Bot, Mariska, van Balkom, Anton JLM, & Penninx, Brenda WJH. (2016). Anxiety and new onset of cardiovascular disease: critical review and meta-analysis. The British journal of psychiatry, 208(3), 223-231.
4.    Biddle, Stuart JH, & Asare, Mavis. (2011). Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. British journal of sports medicine, 45(11), 886-895.
5.    Blomfield, Corey, & Barber, Bonnie. (2010). Australian Adolescents' Extracurricular Activity Participation and Positive Development: Is the Relationship Mediated by Peer Attributes? Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 10, 114-128.
6.    Brooks, Samantha K, Webster, Rebecca K, Smith, Louise E, Woodland, Lisa, Wessely, Simon, Greenberg, Neil, & Rubin, Gideon James. (2020). El impacto psicológico de la cuarentena y cómo reducirla: revisión rápida de las pruebas. Lancet, 395, 912-920.
7.    Cassano, Paolo, & Fava, Maurizio. (2002). Depression and public health: an overview. Journal of psychosomatic research, 53(4), 849-857.
8.    Chen, Peijie, Mao, Lijuan, Nassis, George P, Harmer, Peter, Ainsworth, Barbara, & Li, Fuzhong. (2020). Returning Chinese school-aged children and adolescents to physical activity in the wake of COVID-19: Actions and precautions. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9(4), 322.
9.    Cho, Sung-Hye, Choi, MoonKi, Lee, JuHee, & Cho, Hyewon. (2015). Relationship between Expectations Regarding Aging and Physical Activity among Middle Aged Adults in Urban Areas: Based on the Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 45(1(.
10.     Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (No. 300.72 C6).‏
11.     Currie, Candace, Zanotti, Cara, Morgan, Antony, Currie, Dorothy, De Looze, Margaretha, Roberts, Chris, . Barnekow, Vivian. (2009). Social determinants of health and well-being among young people. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study: international report from the, 2010, 271.
12.     Currier, Dianne, Lindner, Remy, Spittal, Matthew J, Cvetkovski, Stefan, Pirkis, Jane, & English, Dallas R. (2020). Physical activity and depression in men: Increased activity duration and intensity associated with lower likelihood of current depression. Journal of affective disorders, 260, 426-431. 
13.    Gerber, Markus, Börjesson, Mats, Ljung, Thomas, Lindwall, Magnus, & JONSDOTTIR, INGIBJÖRG. (2016). Fitness moderates the relationship between stress and cardiovascular risk factors. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 48(11), 2075-2081.
14.    Gerber, Markus, Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H, Lindwall, Magnus, & Ahlborg Jr, Gunnar. (2014). Physical activity in employees with differing occupational stress and mental health profiles: A latent profile analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(6), 649-658.
15.    Gerber, Markus, Ludyga, Sebastian, Mücke, Manuel, Colledge, Flora, Brand, Serge, & Pühse, Uwe. (2017). Low vigorous physical activity is associated with increased adrenocortical reactivity to psychosocial stress in students with high stress perceptions. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 80, 104-113.
16.    Gong, Yi, Palmer, Stephen, Gallacher, John, Marsden, Terry, & Fone, David. (2016). A systematic review of the relationship between objective measurements of the urban environment and psychological distress. Environment international, 96, 48-57.
17.     Gurian, B. S., & Miner, J. H. (1991). Clinical presentation of anxiety in the elderly. In C. Salzman & B. D. Lebowitz (Eds.), Anxiety in the elderly: Treatment and research (pp. 31–44). Springer Publishing Company.
18.    Haapala, Eero A, Väistö, Juuso, Lintu, Niina, Westgate, Kate, Ekelund, Ulf, Poikkeus, Anna-Maija, . . . Lakka, Timo A. (2017). Physical activity and sedentary time in relation to academic achievement in children. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 20(6), 583-589.
19.    Hall, Grenita, Laddu, Deepika R, Phillips, Shane A, Lavie, Carl J, & Arena, Ross. (2020). A tale of two pandemics: How will COVID-19 and global trends in physical inactivity and sedentary behavior affect one another? Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases.
20.    Hallal, Pedro C, Andersen, Lars Bo, Bull, Fiona C, Guthold, Regina, Haskell, William, Ekelund, Ulf, & Group, Lancet Physical Activity Series Working. (2012). Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. The Lancet, 380(9838), 247-257.
21.    Hammami, Amri, Harrabi, Basma, Mohr, Magni, & Krustrup, Peter. (2020). Physical activity and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): specific recommendations for home-based physical training. Managing Sport and Leisure, 1-6.
22.    Hollar, Danielle, Messiah, Sarah E, Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela, Hollar, T Lucas, Almon, Marie, & Agatston, Arthur S. (2010). Effect of a two-year obesity prevention intervention on percentile changes in body mass index and academic performance in low-income elementary school children. American Journal of Public Health, 100(4), 646-653.
23.      Hotopf, M., & Wessely, S. (1997). Stress in the workplace: unfinished business. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 43(1), 1-6.‏ 
24.    Huang, Tzu-Ting, Liu, Chiu-Bi, Tsai, Yu-Hsia, Chin, Yen-Fan, & Wong, Ching-Hsiang. (2015). Physical fitness exercise versus cognitive behavior therapy on reducing the depressive symptoms among community-dwelling elderly adults: A randomized controlled trial. International journal of nursing studies, 52(10), 1542-1552.
25.     Huang, Y., Wang, Y. U., Wang, H., Liu, Z., Yu, X., Yan, J., ... & Wu, Y. (2019). Prevalence of mental disorders in China: a cross-sectional epidemiological study. The Lancet Psychiatry, 6(3), 211-224.‏
26.    Janssen, Ian, & LeBlanc, Allana G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 7(1), 40.
27.    Jukic, Igor, Calleja-González, Julio, Cos, Francesc, Cuzzolin, Francesco, Olmo, Jesús, Terrados, Nicolas, . . . Milanovic, Luka. (2020). Strategies and solutions for team sports athletes in isolation due to covid-19. In: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, sports, 8(4), 56.
28.    Kassebaum, NJ, Smith, AGC, Bernabé, E, Fleming, TD, Reynolds, AE, Vos, T, . . . Collaborators, GBD Oral Health. (2017). Global, regional, and national prevalence, incidence, and disability-adjusted life years for oral conditions for 195 countries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. Journal of dental research, 96(4), 380-387.
29.    Khosravi, Mohsen. (2020). COVID-19 quarantine: Two-way interaction between physical activity and mental health. European Journal of Translational Myology, 30(4), 9509.
30.    Kim, Kyunghoon, Lee, Sukmin, Kim, Donghoon, & Kim, Kyou Sik. (2015). The effects of ankle joint muscle strengthening and proprioceptive exercise programs accompanied by functional electrical stimulation on stroke patients’ balance. Journal of physical therapy science, 27(9), 2971-2975.
31.    Kohl III, Harold, Murray, Tinker, & Salvo, Deborah. (2019). Foundations of physical activity and public health: Human Kinetics Publishers, Second Edition.
32.    Korczak, Daphne J, Madigan, Sheri, & Colasanto, Marlena. (2017). Children’s physical activity and depression: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 139)4(.
33.    Lear, Scott A, Hu, Weihong, Rangarajan, Sumathy, Gasevic, Danijela, Leong, Darryl, Iqbal, Romaina, . . . Kumar, Rajesh. (2017). The effect of physical activity on mortality and cardiovascular disease in 130 000 people from 17 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: the PURE study. The Lancet, 390(10113), 2643-2654.
34.    Li, Quanman, Miao, Yudong, Zeng, Xin, Tarimo, Clifford Silver, Wu, Cuiping, & Wu, Jian. (2020). Prevalence and factors for anxiety during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic among the teachers in China. Journal of affective disorders, 277, 153-158.
35.    Linnenbrink, Elizabeth A, & Pintrich, Paul R. (2002). Motivation as an enabler for academic success. School psychology review, 31(3), 313-327.
36.    Lok, Neslihan, Lok, Sefa, & Canbaz, Muammer. (2017). The effect of physical activity on depressive symptoms and quality of life among elderly nursing home residents: Randomized controlled trial. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics, 70, 92-98.
37.    Lupien, Sonia J, McEwen, Bruce S, Gunnar, Megan R, & Heim, Christine. (2009). Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature reviews neuroscience, 10(6), 434-445.
38.    Mammen, George, & Faulkner, Guy. (2013). Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. American journal of preventive medicine, 45(5), 649-657.
39.    Mandolesi, Laura, Polverino, Arianna, Montuori, Simone, Foti, Francesca, Ferraioli, Giampaolo, Sorrentino, Pierpaolo, & Sorrentino, Giuseppe. (2018). Effects of physical exercise on cognitive functioning and wellbeing: biological and psychological benefits. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 509
40.    McDowell, Cillian P, MacDonncha, Ciaran, & Herring, Matthew P. (2017). Brief report: Associations of physical activity with anxiety and depression symptoms and status among adolescents. Journal of adolescence, 55, 1-4.
41.    McMahon, Elaine M, Corcoran, Paul, O’Regan, Grace, Keeley, Helen, Cannon, Mary, Carli, Vladimir, . . . Apter, Alan. (2017). Physical activity in European adolescents and associations with anxiety, depression and well-being. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 26)1), 111-122.
42.    Mehrsafar, Amir Hossien, Gazerani, Parisa, Zadeh, Ali Moghadam, & Sánchez, José Carlos Jaenes. (2020). Addressing potential impact of COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health of elite athletes. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 147.
43.    Miloyan, Beyon, Bulley, Adam, Bandeen-Roche, Karen, Eaton, William W, & Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C. (2016). Anxiety disorders and all-cause mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 51(11), 1467-1475.
44.    Motefaker, MSSM, Sadrbafghi, SM, Rafiee, M, Bahadorzadeh, L, Namayandeh, SM, Karimi, M, & Abdoli, AM. (2007). SuicEpidemiology of physical activity: a population based study in Yazd cityide attempt and its relation to stressors and supportive systems: a study in Karaj city. Tehran University Medical Journal TUMS Publications, 65(4), 77-81.
45.    Naci, Huseyin, & Ioannidis, John PA. (2015). Evaluation of wellness determinants and interventions by citizen scientists. Jama, 314(2), 121-122.
46.     World Health Organization. (2020). Considerations for sports federations/sports event organizers when planning mass gatherings in the context of COVID-19: interim guidance, 14 April 2020 (No. WHO/2019-nCoV/Mass_Gatherings_Sports/2020.1). World Health Organization.‏
47.    Phelan, Alexandra L, Katz, Rebecca, & Gostin, Lawrence O. (2020). The novel coronavirus originating in Wuhan, China: challenges for global health governance. Jama, 323(8), 709-710.
48.    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip. (2020). COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian journal of psychiatry, 102066.
49.    Reardon, Claudia L, Hainline, Brian, Aron, Cindy Miller, Baron, David, Baum, Antonia L, Bindra, Abhinav, . . . Currie, Alan. (2019). Mental health in elite athletes: International Olympic Committee consensus statement (2019). British journal of sports medicine, 53(11), 667-699.
50.    Reeve, Johnmarshall, & Tseng, Ching-Mei. (2011). Agency as a fourth aspect of students’ engagement during learning activities. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 36(4), 257-267.
51.    Sahebi, Ali., Asghari, MohammadJavad., and Salari, Razieh. (2005). Validation of the Stress Anxiety Depression Scale (DASS-21) for the Iranian population. Developmental Psychology, No. 4. In Persian
52.    Sarma, Sisira, Devlin, Rose Anne, Gilliland, Jason, Campbell, M Karen, & Zaric, Gregory S. (2015). The effect of leisure‐time physical activity on obesity, diabetes, high bp and heart disease among Canadians: Evidence from 2000/2001 to 2005/2006. Health economics, 24(12), 1531-1547.
53.    Sharma, Ashish, Madaan, Vishal, & Petty, Frederick D. (2006). Exercise for mental health. Primary care companion to the Journal of clinical psychiatry, 8(2), 106.
54.    Sheikh, Muzahid K, Chaudahry, Neha, & Ghogare, Ajinkya. (2020). Depression in Teachers Due to Cyberbullying Who are Working in COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Current Research and Review, 98-102.
55.    Sfendla, Anis, Malmström, Petter, Torstensson, Sara, & Kerekes, Nóra. (2018). Yoga practice reduces the psychological distress levels of prison inmates. Frontiers in psychiatry, 9, 407.
56.    Teychenne, Megan, Costigan, Sarah A, & Parker, Kate. (2015). The association between sedentary behaviour and risk of anxiety: a systematic review. BMC public health, 15(1), 1-8.
57.    Wang, Cuiyan, Pan, Riyu, Wan, Xiaoyang, Tan, Yilin, Xu, Linkang, McIntyre, Roger S, . . . Sharma, Vijay K. (2020). A longitudinal study on the mental health of general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 40-48.
58.    Wu, Wenzhi, Zhang, Yan, Wang, Pu, Zhang, Li, Wang, Guixiang, Lei, Guanghui, . . . Xie, Simiao. (2020). Psychological stress of medical staffs during outbreak of COVID‐19 and adjustment strategy. Journal of Medical Virology, 92(10), 1962-1970.
59.    Zhang, Stephen X, Wang, Yifei, Rauch, Andreas, & Wei, Feng. (2020). Unprecedented disruption of lives and work: Health, distress and life satisfaction of working adults in China one month into the COVID-19 outbreak. Psychiatry research, 112958.
60.    Xiang, Mi, Zhang, Zhiruo, & Kuwahara, Keisuke. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on children and adolescents' lifestyle behavior larger than expected. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 63(4), 531.