نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت راهبردی در سازمان ها و رویدادهای ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 گروه مدیریت ورزشی،دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی،دانشگاه رازی،کرمانشاه،ایران

3 دانشیار علوم اعصاب شناختی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

4 گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکدۀ علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

5 مرکز تحقیقات عملکرد انسان، گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه کنستانس، کنستانس، آلمان

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، تعیین تأثیر مدل­ های مختلف تحریک الکتریکی مستقیم فراجمجمه ­ای بر تکانش­ گری در داوران ورزشی تیمی بر مبنای سبک ­های رهبری بود. تحریک غیرتهاجمی مغز به عنوان روشی جهت بهبود عملکرد در حیطه ­های مختلف ورزش مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است؛ در حالی­که به ­نظر می­ رسد میزان تأثیرگذاری آن به عوامل مختلفی از جمله نوع تحریک و تفاوت ­های فردی بین افراد بستگی داشته باشد. از این رو، تعداد 24 داور ورزشی در رشته های تیمی فوتبال، فوتسال، والیبال، هندبال و بسکتبال شامل 12 داور با سبک رهبری تحول­گرا و 12 داور با سبک رهبری غیرتحول­گرا به صورت داوطلبانه در این پژوهش شرکت نمودند. هر آزمودنی در سه جلسۀ مجزا در آزمایشگاه با فاصلۀ حداقل 72 ساعت استراحت بین جلسات حضور یافت. در هر جلسه، ابتدا میزان تکانش ­گری با استفاده از آزمون تکانش ­گری برو/نرو مورد اندازه ­گیری قرار گرفت و سپس آزمودنی ­ها تحت یکی از 3 نوع تحریک الکتریکی جریان مستقیم فراجمجمه ­ای شامل تحریک آنودال، کاتودال یا شم به مدت 20 دقیقه با شدت 2 میلی آمپر قرار گرفتند. پس از اتمام تحریک، مجدداً میزان تکانش­ گری مورد اندازه ­گیری قرار گرفت. تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آنوای دو راهۀ مرکب نشان داد بین تحریک آند و شم و همچنین بین تحریک کاتد و شَم تفاوت معناداری وجود داشت (به ترتیب 001/0p= ؛ 02/0p= در حالی­که بین دو نوع سبک رهبری در انواع تحریک تفاوت معناداری وجود نداشت. به عنوان یک یافتۀ جدید، این نتایج مؤید امکان استفاده از تحریک الکتریکی فراجمجمه­ ای به عنوان ابزاری برای افزایش عملکرد در داوران ورزشی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Different Models of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Impulsivity in Sports Referees: The Role of Leadership Styles

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahrouz Ghayebzadeh 1
  • Shirin Zardoshtian 2
  • hasan sabourimoghaddam 3
  • Ehsan Amiri 4
  • louis-solal Giboin 5

1 Ph.D. student in sport management, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Faculty of Sport Sciences, sport management, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Department of Psychology, Cognitive Neuroscience, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

4 Faculty of Sport Sciences, Sport physiology, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

5 Sensorimotor Performance Lab, Human Performance Research Centre, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany

چکیده [English]

Non-invasive brain stimulation has been used as a tool to boost the performance in different areas of sports, however; it seems that its effectiveness depends on several variables such as individual differences and the stimulation modalities. Accordingly, 24 male Football, Futsal, Volleyball, Basketball, and Handball referees including 12 with transformational leadership styles and 12 with non-transformational leadership styles voluntarily participated in this study. Each subject visited the laboratory on 3 different occasions interspersed with 72 hours of rest in between. In each session, the impulsivity was first measured by the Go/ No Go impulsivity test and then, subjects were exposed to one of the three models of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) including Anodal, Cathodal, and Sham stimulation for 20 minutes at 2 mA intensity. After the cessation of the stimulation, the impulsivity was again measured under a similar condition. Two-way mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis and the results showed that there were significant differences between Anodal and sham, and Cathodal and sham stimulations on impulsivity (p=0.001; p=0.02, respectively) while, no significant differences were seen between the leadership styles on different types of stimulation. As a novel finding, these results indicated the possibility of using tDCS intervention to enhance the performance of sports referees.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
  • Sports Referees
  • Impulsivity
  • dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
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