نوع مقاله : مطالعه پژوهشی اصیل

نویسندگان

1 گروه تربیت بدنی، واحد علی‌آباد کتول، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، علی‌آباد کتول، ایران

2 گروه تربیت بدنی، واحد ساری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ساری، ایران

3 گروه تربیت بدنی، واحد علی آباد کتول، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، علی آباد کتول، ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر تأثیر ثابت‌قدمی بر استحکام ذهنی و هوش هیجانی ورزشکاران نخبه بود. جامعة آماری تحقیق را تمامی ورزشکاران نخبه شهرستان گرگان دعوت‌شده به تیم ملی تشکیل می‌‌دادند. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامه‌های ثابت‌قدمی داک ورث و همکاران (2007)، هوش هیجانی بار-آن (2002) و استحکام ذهنی شیرد و همکاران (2009) استفاده شد. داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون همبستگی اسپیرمن و مدل معادلات ساختاری تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که ثابت‌قدمی بر استحکام ذهنی ورزشکاران اثر مثبت معناداری دارد (016/0=Sig، 206/2=t) اما تأثیر ثابت‌قدمی بر هوش هیجانی ورزشکاران معنادار نبوده است (261/0=Sig، 736/0=t). در نهایت بر اساس شاخص‌های (CFI، NFI، IFI) مدل تحقیق از برازش لازم برخوردار می‌باشد. بنابراین ثابت‌قدمی به عنوان یکی از فاکتورهای اثرگذار بر استحکام ذهنی به مربیان و ورزشکاران پیشنهاد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship of Grit with Mental Toughness and Emotional Intelligence (EQ) of Elite Athletes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Dana 1
  • Vahid Shojaei 2
  • Saeed Ghorbani 3

1 Department of physical education, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad katoul, Iran

2 Department of Physical Education, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

3 Department of Physical Education, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran

چکیده [English]

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship of grit with mental toughness and emotional intelligence. The statistical population included elite athletes who were invited to the national team. Data collection was performed using the following questionnaires: i) grit questionnaire of Duck Worth et al. (2007), ii) emotional intelligence questionnaire of Bar-On's (2002), and iii) mental toughness questionnaire of Sheard et al. (2009) .According to Spearman correlation coefficient, there is a significant positive correlation between grit and mental toughness (Sig=0.001, t =0.322). The results showed that grit has a significant and positive effect on the mental toughness of athletes (Sig=0.016, t =2.206). Finally, based on (CFI, NFI, IFI) indices, the research model has the necessary fit. Therefore, the grit factor can be suggested to coaches and athletes as one of the factors influencing mental toughness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grit
  • Mental Toughness
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • Elite Athletes
  1. : دیدگاه سالوی و دیگران ، چاپ دوم، تهران، انتشارات سمت.
  2. قربانی، سهراب.(1388).مقایسه هوش هیجانی دانشجویان ورزشکار و غیر ورزشکار مرد و رابطه آن با گرایش به ورزش های گروهی و انفرادی. پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد. دانشگاه تهران مرکز.
  3. Baron, R. (1999). The emotional question inventory (EQ -I): A measure of emotional intelligence. Sanfrancisco: Tossey- Bass.
  4. Baron, R. (2010). Emotional intelligence: an integral part of positive psychology. South African Journal of Psychology, 40(1), 54-62.
  5. Borton, W., & Grelle, J. (2012). The Dirt on grit: Examining relations with school adjustment, school performance, and theories of intelligence. Hanover College, PSY 401: Advanced Research.

 

  1. Credé, M., & Phillips, L. A. (2011). A meta-analytic review of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Learning & Individual Differences, 21, 337-346.
  2. Crede, M., Tynan, M., & Harms, P.(2016). Much do about grit: A meta-analytic synthesis of the grit literature. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 113(3), 492-511. 
  3. Duckworth, A. (2017). Grit: the power of passion and perseverance. Collins.
  4. Duckworth, A. & Gross, J. (2014). Self-Control and grit: related but separable determinants of success. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(5), 319–325
  5. Duckworth, A. L. (2014). Grit, self-control, GPA, and BMI. Unpublished raw data.
  6. Duckworth, A. L., & Eskreis-Winkler, L. (2015). Grit. In J. D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (2nd ed., pp. 397-401). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
  7. Duckworth, A. L., & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the short grit scale (Grit-S).Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(2), 166-174.
  8. Duckworth, A. L., Kirby, T. A., Tsukayama, E., Berstein, H., & Ericsson, K. A. (2011). Deliberate practice spells success: Why grittier competitors triumph at the national spelling bee. Social Psychology & Personality Science, 2(2), 174-181.
  9. Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087-1101.
  10. Duckworth, A. L, & Quinn, P. D. (2009). Development and validation of the Short Grit Scale (Grit-S). Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 166-174.
  11. Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality. Psychological Review, 95(2), 256-273.
  12. Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2005). Perceived emotional intelligence and life satisfaction: Predictive and incremental validity using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale. Personality & Individual Differences. 39(5), 937-948.
  13. Gladys, S. L., Frank, J. H., Amy, H. W. (2009). Exploring the relationships of physical activity, emotional intelligence and health in Taiwan College Students. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, 7(1), 55-63
  14. Gould, D., & Dieffenbach, K. (2002). Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 172-204.
  15. Heckman, J., Humphries, J. E., & Kautz, T. (2014). The GED and the role of character in American life. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  16. Jones, Kelly A., (2011). The influence of mental toughness on the performance of elite intercollegiate athletes. Western Master's Thesis, Washington University.
  17. Jones, G., Hanton, S., & Connaughton., D. (2002).What is this thing called mental toughness? An investigation of elite sport performers. Journal of applied sport psychology. 14(3), 205-218
  18. Karabenick, S. A. (2003). Seeking help in large college classes: A person-centered Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28(1), 37-58.
  19. Kashani, V., Farokhi, A., Kazemnezhad, A., & Sheikh, M. (2015). Determining the validity and reliability of the Persian version of the Sport Subjective Hardiness Questionnaire (SMTQ). Motor Behavior Journal, 20, 49-72. (In Persian).

 

 

  1. Khademi, E. (2011). Prediction of psychological hardiness based on psychological skills with mediating role of emotional intelligence. Master Thesis, Faculty of Psychology, University of Shiraz. (In Persian).
  2. Khaleghverdi, A. (2014). Relationship between emotional intelligence with toughness and flexibility in Iranian women's Futsal championship Premier League. Master Thesis, Science and Technology Branch, Islamic Azad University. (In Persian).
  3. Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications.
  4. Kobasa, S. C. (1979). Stressful life events, personality and health: An enquiry into Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 37, 1-11.
  5. Kobasa, S. C., Maddi, S. R., & Puccetti, M. C. (1982). Personality and exercise as buffers in the stress-illness relation. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 5, 391-404.
  6. Lane, A. M., Meyer, B., Tracey, J., Devonport, T., Kevin, A., Davies, K. A., Thelwsell, R., Gill, G., Diehl, C., Wilson, M., & Weston, N. (2009). Validity of the emotional intelligence scale for use in sport. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 8, 289-295
  7. Latimer, A. E. Rench, T. A., & Brackett, M. A. (2007). Emotional intelligence: A framework for examining emotions in sport and exercise groups. In: M. R. Beauchomp & M. A. Eys (Eds.), Group dynamics in exercise and sport psychology (pp. 3-27). New York: Routledge.
  8. MacNamara, B. N., Hambrick, D. Z., & Oswald, F. L. (2014). Deliberate practice and performance in music, games, sports, education, and professions: A meta-analysis. Psychological Science, 25, 1608-1618.
  9. Maher, L. (2016). A comparative study of self-esteem, mental toughness and athletic identity in team and individual sports: male athletes. Undergraduate thesis, National College of Ireland.
  10. Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annuals Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536.
  11. Mousavi Chamani, O. (2016). The Relationship between emotional intelligence and religious attitudes with mental health of high school students in Neka city, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(3), S2
  12. Nabilpour, M., & Aghababa, A. (2015). The relationship between mental hardiness with the mind and knowledge of the physiological routine of young football players. Journal of Motor Behavior & Sport Psychology, 14, 1063-1073. (In Persian).
  13. Rahmati, F., & Nemati, M. (2015). Relationship between mental affirmation and emotional intelligence and comparison between athlete and non-athlete students. Research in Sport Management & Motor Behavior, 11(32), 141-148. (In Persian).
  14. RezaieMoghaddam, P. (2017). The relationship between alexithymia and grit in tenth grade girls in Amol city. Master Thesis, Faculty of General Psychology, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University. (In Persian).
  15. Ryan, A. M. & Pintrich, P. R. (1997). Should I ask for help? The role of motivation and attitudes in adolescents’ help seeking in math class. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 329-341.
  16. Sheard, M., Golby, J., & Van Wersch, A. (2009). Progress toward construct validation of the sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25(3), 186-193.
  17. Shrivastava1, , & Mishra, V. (2016). Grit, resilience & agency in sports persons and non-sports persons. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention.
  18. Sony, M., Mekoth, N. (2016). The relationship between emotional intelligence, frontline employee adaptability, job satisfaction and job Journal of Retailing & Consumer Services, 30, 20-32
  19. Vallerand, R. J., Houlfort, N., & Forest, J. (2014). Passion for work: Determinants and outcomes. In M. Gagne (Ed.), Oxford handbook of work engagement, motivation, and self-determination theory (pp 85-105). New York, NY Oxford University Press.
  20. Vassiliki, C., Dimitra, S. (2009). Emotional intelligence, Body image and disordered eating attitudes in combat sport athletes. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 7, 104-111
  21. Visram, A. (2014). Impact of mental toughness training on psychological and physical predictors of illness and injury. Master Thesis, University of Massachussets.
  22. Walton, G. M. (2014). The new science of wise psychological Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23, 73-82.
  23. ZeinivandNezhad, F., & Rashed, F. (2016). Testing research hypotheses by structural equation modeling: exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Tehran: Sociologist Pub. (In Persian).