تأثیر تمرینات شناختی حرکتی بر عوامل خطرزای افتادن در سالمندان: مرور نظام مند و فراتحلیل شواهد بین المللی

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

2 استادیار دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

3 استاد دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

این مطالعه ادبیات پژوهش مربوط به آثار مداخله‌های شناختی - حرکتی بر عوامل خطرزای افتادن در سالمندان را ارزیابی می‌کند. سی مطالعه در مرور سیستماتیک وارد شدند که تحلیل کمی داده ها (فراتحلیل) روی همۀ آنها انجام شد. مداخله‌ها به سه دسته تقسیم شدند: مداخله‌های تصویر سازی (43 نمونه)، تکلیف دوگانه (168 نمونه) و مداخله های کامپیوتری (706 نمونه). اندازه اثر کوچکی برای مداخله‌های تصویر سازی گزارش شد اما اندازه اثر مربوط به تکلیف دوگانه و مداخله‌های کامپیوتری متوسط بود. در حالی که عوامل متعددی شناسایی شدند که بر خطر افتادن سالمندان تأثیر گذار هستند به نظر می‌رسد که اختلال در وضعیت ذهنی و جنبش پذیری از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار باشند. تمرینات شناختی- حرکتی به دلایلی از جمله هدف گذاری واقع بینانه، تقویت مثبت حین تمرین، بازخورد و توانایی خود نظارتی عملکرد، موجب ثبات بیشتر می ­شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Motor-Cognitive Training on Risk Factors of Falling in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on International Evidence

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amir Vazini Taher 1
  • Ali Heyrani 2
  • Mohammad Taghi Aghdasi 3
چکیده [English]

This study aimed to evaluate the literature in respect to the effects of motor cognitive interventions on fall risk factors among older adults. Thirty studies were included in systematic review which quantitative analysis (Meta-Analysis) performed on all of them. Interventions were divided into three groups: Imagery interventions (43 subjects), Dual-Task (168 subjects) and Computerized interventions (706 subjects). Small effect size was reported for mental imagery interventions, while effect sizes of dual task and computerized interventions were moderate. While several factors were detected that impact risk of fall in elderly, it seems that impairment in mental state and mobility has a special importance. Motor cognitive training cause more consistency due to reasons such as realistic goal setting, positive reinforcement during exercise, feedback and ability of self-monitoring performance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cognitive- Motor Training
  • Balance
  • Gait
  • Elderly
  • Cognition
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