Association, A. P. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®): American Psychiatric Pub.
Baghurst, T., & Lirgg, C. (2009). Characteristics of muscle dysmorphia in male football, weight training, and competitive natural and non-natural bodybuilding samples. Body Image, 6(3), 221-227.
Boulanger, J. L., Hayes, S. C., & Pistorello, J. (2010). Experiential avoidance as a functional contextual concept. Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment, 107-136.
Cafri, G., Thompson, J. K., Ricciardelli, L., McCabe, M., Smolak, L., & Yesalis, C. (2005). Pursuit of the muscular ideal: Physical and psychological consequences and putative risk factors. Clinical psychology review, 25(2), 215-239.
Carlson Jones, D. (2004). Body image among adolescent girls and boys: a longitudinal study. Developmental psychology, 40(5), 823.
Flaxman, P. E., Blackledge, J. T., & Bond, F. W. (2011). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Distinctive features: Routledge.
Frederick, D. A., Buchanan, G. M., Sadehgi-Azar, L., Peplau, L. A., Haselton, M. G., Berezovskaya, A., & Lipinski, R. E. (2007). Desiring the muscular ideal: Men's body satisfaction in the United States, Ukraine, and Ghana. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(2), 103.
Frost, R. O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive therapy and research, 14(5), 449-468.
Grammas, D. L., & Schwartz, J. P. (2009). Internalization of messages from society and perfectionism as predictors of male body image. Body Image, 6(1), 31-36.
10. Gratz, K. L., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41-54.
11. Grieve, F. G. (2007). A conceptual model of factors contributing to the development of muscle dysmorphia. Eating Disorders, 15(1), 63-80.
12. Hayes, S. C., Wilson, K. G., Gifford, E. V., Follette, V. M., & Strosahl, K. (1996). Experiential avoidance and behavioral disorders: a functional dimensional approach to diagnosis and treatment. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 64(6), 1152.
13. Hildebrandt, T., Langenbucher, J., & Schlundt, D. G. (2004). Muscularity concerns among men: Development of attitudinal and perceptual measures. Body Image, 1(2), 169-181.
14. Jonda, J. (2007). Similarities between etiological models of eating disorder symptomatology and muscle dysmorphia symptomatology. Unpublished master’s thesis, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY.
15. Jones, D. C., Vigfusdottir, T. H., & Lee, Y. (2004). Body image and the appearance culture among adolescent girls and boys an examination of friend conversations, peer criticism, appearance magazines, and the internalization of appearance ideals. Journal of adolescent research, 19(3), 323-339.
16. Kanayama, G., Pope, H. G., Cohane, G., & Hudson, J. I. (2003). Risk factors for anabolic-androgenic steroid use among weightlifters: a case–control study. Drug and alcohol dependence, 71(1), 77-86.
17. Karazsia, B. T., & Crowther, J. H. (2009). Social body comparison and internalization: Mediators of social influences on men's muscularity-oriented body dissatisfaction. Body Image, 6(2), 105-112.
18. Lantz, C. D., Rhea, D., & Mayhew, J. (2001). The drive for size: A psycho-behavioral model of muscle dysmorphia. International Sports Journal, 5(1), 71-86.
19. McCreary, D. R. (2007). The Drive for Muscularity Scale: Description, Psychometrics, and Research Findings. The Muscular Ideal: Psychological. Social, and Medical Perspectives, 87-106.
20. McCreary, D. R., & Sasse, D. K. (2002). Gender differences in high school students’ dieting behavior and their correlates. International Journal of Men’s Health, 1(2).
21. Mosley, P. E. (2009). Bigorexia: bodybuilding and muscle dysmorphia. European Eating Disorders Review, 17(3), 191-198.
22. Murray, S. B., Rieger, E., Hildebrandt, T., Karlov, L., Russell, J., Boon, E., . . . Touyz, S. W. (2012). A comparison of eating, exercise, shape, and weight related symptomatology in males with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa. Body Image, 9(2), 193-200.
23. Murray, S. B., Rieger, E., Karlov, L., & Touyz, S. W. (2013). An investigation of the transdiagnostic model of eating disorders in the context of muscle dysmorphia. European Eating Disorders Review, 21(2), 160-164.
24. Olivardia, R. (2001). Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the largest of them all? The features and phenomenology of muscle dysmorphia. Harvard review of psychiatry, 9(5), 254-259.
25. Pope, H. G., Gruber, A. J., Choi, P., Olivardia, R., & Phillips, K. A. (1997). Muscle dysmorphia: An underrecognized form of body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics, 38(6), 548-557.
26. Pope, H. G., Katz, D. L., & Hudson, J. I. (1993). Anorexia nervosa and “reverse anorexia” among 108 male bodybuilders. Comprehensive psychiatry, 34(6), 406-409.
27. Pope Jr, H. G., Gruber, A. J., Mangweth, B., Bureau, B., Jouvent, R., & Hudson, J. I. (2000). Body image perception among men in three countries. American Journal of Psychiatry.
28. Pourshahbaz, A., Nonahal, S., Dolatshahi, B., & Omidian, M. (2014). The Role of the Media, Perfectionism, and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation in Prediction of Muscle Dysmorphia Symptoms.
29. Readdy, T., Cardinal, B. J., & Watkins, P. L. (2011). Muscle dysmorphia, gender role stress, and sociocultural influences: An exploratory study. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 82(2), 310-319.
30. Rohman, L. (2009). The relationship between anabolic androgenic steroids and muscle dysmorphia: a review. Eating Disorders, 17(3), 187-199.
31. Thompson, J. K., & Stice, E. (2001). Thin-ideal internalization: Mounting evidence for a new risk factor for body-image disturbance and eating pathology. Current directions in psychological science, 10(5), 181-183.
32. Thompson, J. K., van den Berg, P., Roehrig, M., Guarda, A. S., & Heinberg, L. J. (2004). The sociocultural attitudes towards appearance scale-3 (SATAQ-3): Development and validation. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35(3), 293-304.