اضطراب، خبرگی و رفتارهای خیرگی در حین پیش بینی پنالتی در دروازه بان های فوتبال

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه رفتار حرکتی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 استاد رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران

چکیده

اثر شرایط فشار بر عملکرد ورزشی همواره یکی از موضوعات مهم پژوهش­ های حوزه روان­ شناسی ورزش بوده است و اثر اضطراب بر عملکرد و بررسی مکانیزم­ های آن هنوز موضوع مورد علاقه روان­شناسان ورزش است. هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی تأثیر اضطراب حالتی بر دقت پیش بینی و شاخص ­های خیرگی دروازه ­بان ­های فوتبال با دو سطح تبحر خبره و مبتدی بود. ده دروازه بان خبره و 10 فرد مبتدی به صورت همتراز شدۀ متقابل در شرایط عادی و شرایط فشار، مسیر ضربات پنالتی پخش شده در یک ویدئو که در لحظه تماس پا با توپ با استفاده از پارادایم انسداد زمانی، مسدود شده بود را پیش­ بینی کردند. در حین پیش ­بینی با استفاده از عینک دوچشمی ردیاب چشم اطلاعات خیرگی شرکت کنندگان (مدت تثبیت و تعداد تثبیت ­ها) ضبط شد. با استفاده از نرم افزارهای Pupil و افزونه ­های آن، اطلاعات خیرگی استخراج و مقادیر با تحلیل واریانس مرکب و آزمون t همبسته تحلیل شدند. یافته ­ها نشان داد اثر اصلی اضطراب بر مدت تثبیت (کاهش) و تعداد تثبیت ­ها (افزایش) در هر دو گروه معنا­دار بود و اضطراب بر دقت پیش بینی در گروه خبره تأثیر معنا­داری نداشت؛ اما باعث کاهش دقت پیش بینی گروه مبتدی شد. به طور کلی اثر اضطراب در گروه خبره با پیش بینی ­های نظریه کنترل توجهی هم­راستا بود و نشان داد اضطراب باعث کاهش کارایی پردازش می‌شود. اما الزاماً به کاهش اثربخشی عملکرد ادراکی-حرکتی منجر نمی ­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Anxiety, Expertise and Gaze Behaviors during Penalty Kick Anticipation in Football Goalkeepers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Pashabadi 1
  • alireza farsi 2
  • Abbas Bahram 3
  • Afkham Daneshfar 4
1 Ph.D In Motor Behavior
2 Professor at Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
3 department of motor behavior, kharazmi university
4 Al-Zahra University
چکیده [English]

The effect of pressure condition on sport performance has always been one of the major issues of research and Anxiety’s influence on performance and its underlining mechanisms continues to be one of the main research interests for sport psychologists. The purpose of current study was to examine the effect of state-competitive anxiety on anticipation accuracy and gaze indicators of football goalkeeper with two levels of skill. Two groups of 10 Expert and novice goalkeepers were required to anticipate penalty kicks presented on temporally occluded video in two counterbalanced experimental conditions. During anticipation, gaze behaviors (duration and number of fixations) were recorded using Pupil binocular mobile eye tracker. Gaze information were extracted using add-ons of pupil player software and then anticipation accuracy and gaze data analyzed using Mixed ANOVA and paired t test. Increased anxiety led to decreased processing efficiency (increased number of fixations and decreased duration of fixations) for both skill level groups whereas Anxiety influenced performance efficiency (decreased the accuracy of anticipation) just in novice group, and had no effects on performance in expert goalkeepers. Generally, effects of anxiety in expert group is a support for ACT prediction and showed that anxiety decreased processing efficiency and no effects on performance efficiency. In novice group, Further future research needs to have clear insight

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Action-Perception
  • anticipation
  • Anxiety
  • Expertise
  • Gaze
  • Penalty

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