مدل‌سازی عوامل مؤثر بر بروز پرخاشگری در میان هواداران باشگاه‌های فوتبال استقلال و پرسپولیس تهران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مدیریت ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه الزهرا (س)، تهران، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت ورزشی از دانشگاه الزهرا

3 استادیار، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه الزهرا (س)، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش، مدل ­سازی عوامل مؤثر بر بروز پرخاشگری در هواداران باشگاه ­های فوتبال استقلال و پرسپولیس تهران است. روش پژوهش از لحاظ هدف کاربردی بود. جامعة آماری هواداران باشگاه ­های فوتبال استقلال و پرسپولیس بودند. نمونه آماری با توجه به جدول مورگان 387 نفر در نظر گرفته شد. ابزار پژوهش، پرسش‌نامة محقق ­ساخته بود که روایی و پایایی آن مورد تأیید قرار گرفت. برای تحلیل داده­ ها و طراحی مدل از نرم ­افزار اسمارت پی ال اس استفاده شد. یافته ­های پژوهش نشان داد عوامل زمینه ­ای بیشترین و عوامل مدیریتی و عملکردی کمترین اثر را بر بروز پرخاشگری داشته ­اند. بیشترین آمار رفتارهای خشونت ­آمیز در رده سنی 20-29 سال است. بنابراین "ﮐﻨﺘﺮل ﻫﯿﺠـﺎن و ﻣﺪﯾﺮﯾﺖ اﺳﺘﺮس" باید در عناوین آموزشی وزارت آموزش و پرورش، دانشگاه­ها، وزرات ورزش، فدراسیون و باشگاه­ها قرار گیرد به طوری­ که آموزش اصول و قوانین رفتن به ورزشگاه را به نوجوانان و جوانان بیاموزیم.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modeling of Effective Factors on Aggression between Esteghlal and Perspolis Fans

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nahid Atghia 1
  • Saeede Bakhshizade 2
  • Maryam Mokhtari Dinani 3
1 Faculty Member in Sport Management Dep. at the Alzahra University
2 MA of Sport Management , Alzahra University
3 Faculty Member of Sport Management Dep. at the Alzahra University
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study is the modeling of effective factors on aggression outbreak the Esteghlal and Perspolis fans. The research method was appliedal in terms of purpose. The statistical population consists of fans of Esteghlal and Persepolis football clubs. The sample size was 387 people based on Morgan’s table. The tool of the research is questionnaire that reliability and validity were confirmed. Smart PlS software was used for data analysis and model design. Findings showed that contextual factors had the greatest impact and Managerial and functional factors had the least effect on the incidence of aggression. According to the results the highest number of violent behaviors is in the age of 20-29, so "Emotion control and stress management" should be included in the educational titles of the Ministry of Education, universities, the Ministry of Sports, federations and clubs, So, that we can teach the principles and rules of going to the gym to teenagers and young people.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Athletes
  • Aggression
  • Fans
  • Football
  • Esteghlal
  • Persepolis
1. Abbaszadeh, M., Saadati, M., Kabiri, A., Ashayeri, T. (2017). Sociological study of the factors affecting aggression among football spectators. Quarterly Journal of Social Order Research, 9(4), 35-70. (Persian).
2. Aghayie, M., Molanorouzi, K. (2019). Criminological Analysis of Failure Theory - Aggression in the Violence of Football Spectators, Sport Sychology studies, 7 (26), 151-166. (Persian).
3. Anbari, M. (2007). Investigating the group and subcultural factors affecting the violence of football spectators. Quarterly Journal of the Iranian Association for Cultural Studies and Communication. (Persian).
4. Anderson, C. A., & Carnagey, N. L. (2009). Causal effects of violent sports video games on aggression: Is it competitiveness or violent content, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(4), 731-739.
5. Andriessen, K., & Krysinska, K. (2009). Can sports events affect suicidal behavior? A review of the literature and implications for prevention. Crisis, 30(3), 144-152.
6. Archetti, E. P., & Romero, A. G. (1994). Death and violence in Argentinian football. Football, violence and social identity, 37-72.
7. Baenninger, R. (Ed.). (1991). Targets of violence and aggression. Elsevier, 76, 443-460.
8. Duke, V., & Crolley, L. (1996). Football spectator behaviour in Argentina: A case of separate evolution. The Sociological Review, 44(2), 272-293.
9. Dunning, E. (2000). Towards a sociological understanding of football hooliganism as a world phenomenon. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 8(2), 141-162.
10. Eskandari, H & Bejani, A. (2012). Study of Factors Affecting Violence from the Perspective of Spectators of Tabriz Tractor Manufacturing Football Team in the 2011-2012 Season of the Iranian Premier League, The First National Conference on Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Najafabad, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad Branch. (Persian).
11. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
12. Gholami, S., Heydarinejad, S. (2012). Identification of factors of aggression incidence among football spectators in Khuzestan. Sports Management Studies, 28, 121-134. (Persian).
13. Haji Beygi, M. R., Masoodi, A. R. (2006). Violence and aggression in football and ways to control it, Security Quarterly, 5(1), 73-116. (Persian).
14. Hilliard, R. C., & Johnson, C. G. (2018). Sport Fan Attitudes and Willingness to Commit Aggressive Acts. Journal of Sport Behavior, 41(3).
15. Huesmann, L. R. (2018). An integrative theoretical understanding of aggression: a brief exposition. Current opinion in psychology, 19, 119-124.
16. Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic management journal, 20(2), 195-204.
17. Jahanfar, M. (2002). Violence in football is preventable, Social Sciences Letter, 19(19), 37-68. (Persian).
18. Jan Bozorgi, E. (2011). Factors of Social Security Studies, Quarterly Journal of Social Security Studies, 2(27), 121-143. (Persian).
19. Khodadadi, M. R., Yousefi, S., Rezaei, S., Jamal, A. (2013). Sociological Factors of Violence and Aggression among Football Spectators (from Tabriz Football Spectators Point of View), Strategic Studies On Youth and Sports, 23, 147. (Persian).
20. Koyuncuoglu, K., Goktas, Z., & Demır, E. (2014). Effects of the socio-economic-cultural structure of football spectators on the tendency towards violence (Manisaspor case). Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 16(2), 41-49.
21. Mansourzadeh, A. (2008). Study of the factors affecting the incidence of aggression in spectators, players and coaches of Sepahan and Zobahan Isfahan football teams. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Physical Education, Isfahan University. (Persian).
22. Marsh, P., Fox, K., Carnibella, G., McCann, J., & Marsh, J. (1996). Football violence and hooliganism in Europe. The Amsterdam Group.
23. Mohammad Kazemi, R. Sheikh, M., Shahbazi, M., Rasekh, N. (2007). Investigation of the causes of football spectator riots after the great Derby of Iran (from the spectators' point of view). Research in sports sciences, 5(17), 101-114. (Persian).
24. Movahed, M. A., Foroughipour, H., Sabounchi, R. (2015). "Assessing the role of the media in the occurrence of abnormal behaviors of football spectators". International Conference on Management, Economics and Humanities. (Persian).
25. Moradi, J., Hosain Nezhad, A., Zamani, SH. (2015). Relationship between Sport Orientation and Aggression of Martial Arts Athletes, Sport Sychology studies, 4 (14), 17- 28.
26. Nejhad Sajadi, A., Goderi, R., GhahremanTabrizi, K. (2018). Identifying Factors Affecting Aggression among Iranian Female Premier League Football Players, Sport Sychology studies, 7 (24), 17- 34. (Persian).
27. Ostrowsky, M. K. (2014). The social psychology of alcohol use and violent behavior among sports spectators. Aggression and violent behavior, 19(4), 303-310.
28. Pappas, N. T., McKenry, P. C., & Catlett, B. S. (2004). Athlete aggression on the rink and off the ice: Athlete violence and aggression in hockey and interpersonal relationships. Men and Masculinities, 6(3), 291-312.
29. Pourzarangar, J. (2018). Investigating the reasons for the aggression of Rasht football spectators in stadiums and providing solutions to reduce it. Journal of Modern Management Approaches to Management and Accounting, 5, 80-88. (Persian).
30. Rahmaninia, F., Salehi, S., Kialashaki, R., & Hemmatinejad, M. (2001). Study of Aggression Factors in Sports Fields from the Perspective of Athletes, Spectators and Physical Education Specialists. Olympic Quarterly, 8(3-4), 39-46. (Persian).
31. Ramezani Nejad, R., Rahmati, M. M., Azadan, M., Hemmatinejad, Mehrali. (2012). Factor analysis of variables in the occurrence of aggression in spectators from the perspective of Iranian football referees. Sports Management Studies, 3, 214-201. (Persian).
32. Ranjbari, Sheyda, Alam, Zahra, Shojaee, Vahid, (2019), “Meta- analysis of sport violence in Iranian Reseaches”, Sport Sychology studies, 28, 179-92. (Persian).
33. Shafiee, Sh., Dastum, S., Abdali, H., Afrozeh, H. (2015). Presenting a process model of aggression and its control framework in football spectators. New Approaches in Sports Management, 4)14(, 67-51. (Persian).
34. Spaaij, R. (2005). The prevention of football hooliganism: A transnational perspective. In Actas del X Congreso Internacional de Historia del Deporte. Seville: CESH. pp. 1-10.
35. Strang, L., Baker, G., Pollard, J., & Hofman, J. (2018). Violent and Antisocial Behaviours at Football Events and Factors Associated with these Behaviours. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. RR-2580-QAT. As of, 21.
36. Vosoughi, M., Khosravi Nejad, S. M. (2009) Study of socio-cultural factors of emotional behavior of football spectators. Journal of Social Sciences, 3)1(, 78-59. (Persian).