تأثیر راهبردهای مختلف توجهی بر دقت پرتاب آزاد پرتاب کنندگان مبتدی بسکتبال: نقش اطلاعات بینایی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی رفتار حرکتی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشیار دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 استادیار دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر راهبردهای مختلف توجهی بر دقت پرتاب آزاد و همچنین بررسی نقش اطلاعات بینایی در پرتاب کنندگان مبتدی بسکتبال می باشد. 14 پرتاب کنندة مبتدی با دامنة سنی 21 تا 28 سال بصورت در دسترس انتخاب شدند. شرکت کنندگان 20 کوشش را بصورت کانتربالانس در حالات مختلف توجهی و در مجموع 80 کوشش را اجرا کردند. در هر حالت، نیمی از کوشش ها با استفاده از اطلاعات بینایی و نیمی دیگر بدون استفاده از اطلاعات بینایی انجام شد. نتایج تحلیل واریانس عاملی با اندازه گیری مکرر نشان داد اثر اصلی توجه درونی-بیرونی و وجود-فقدان اطلاعات بینایی و همچنین اثر متقابل توجه درونی-بیرونی/مربوط –نامربوط معنادار بوده و سایر اثرات معنادار نبود. به عبارت دیگر، یافته ها نشان داد راهبرد توجه بیرونی- مربوط در هر دو حالت وجود و یا فقدان اطلاعات بینایی برتر از سایر راهبردهای توجهی می باشد. بنابراین، پیشنهاد می شود مربیان در حین ارائة دستورالعمل‌ها و راهبردهای توجهی، بر راهبردهای توجهی بیرونی- مربوط تاکید داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Differential Attentional Focus Strategies on Accuracy of Free Throw in Novice Basketball Throwers: The Role of Visual Information

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeel Saemi 1
  • Behrouz Abdoli 2
  • AliReza Farsi 2
  • Mohammad Ali Sanjari 3
چکیده [English]

The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of different attentional strategies on the accuracy of free throw as well as to examine the role of visual information in basketball novice throwers. Fourteen novice throwers from 21 to 28 years old were recruited. Participants performed 20 trials as counterbalance in various attentional conditions and in general performed 80 trials. In each attentional condition, half of the trials were performed using visual information and the other half of the trials were performed without the presence of visual information. The results of the factorial variance analysis with repeated measure indicated that the main effect of internal-external attention, the presence and non-presence of visual condition as well as the interactional effect of internal-external / relevant-irrelevant attention was significant. The other effects were not significant. In other words, the findings indicated that the external relevant attentional strategies in both visual and nonvisual conditions was better that the other strategies. Therefore, it can be suggested that it is better the coach’s use from external relevant attentional strategies.   

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • External Relevant Attention
  • Internal Relevant Attention
  • External Irrelevant Attention
  • Internal Irrelevant Attention
  • Visual Information
  1. Al-Abood, S. A., Bennett, S. J., Hernandez, F. M., Ashford, D., & Davids, K. (2002). Effect of verbal instructions and image size on visual search strategies in basketball free throw shooting. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20(3), 271-278.
  2. Baumeister, R. F. (1984). Choking under pressure: Self-consciousness and  paradoxical  effects  of  incentives  on  skillful  performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 610-620.
  3. Beilock, S. L. (2007). Understanding  skilled  performance:  Memory, attention, and “choking under pressure. In P. T. T.  Morris, & S. Gordon (Ed.), Sport & exercise  psychology:  International  perspectives  (pp. 153-166.). Morgantown,WV  Fitness Information Technology.
  4. Beilock, S. L., & Carr, T. H. (2001). On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 130(4), 701-725.
  5. Beilock, S. L., Bertenthal,  B.I.,  McCoy, A.M.,  &  Carr, T.H. (2004). Haste  does  not  always  make  waste:  Expertise,  direction  of  attention,  and  speed  versus  accuracy  in  performing sensorimotor skills. Psychonomic Bulletin &  Review, 11, 373-379.
  6. Beilock, S. L., Carr, T. H., MacMahon, C., & Starkes, J. L. (2002). When paying attention becomes counterproductive: impact of divided versus skill-focused attention on novice and experienced performance of sensorimotor skills. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8(1), 6-16.
  7. Carlton, L. G. (1992). Visual processing time and the control of movement. In L. P. D. Elliott (Ed.), Vision and motor control (pp. 3-31.). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: North-Holland.
  8. Castaneda, B., & Gray, R. (2007). Effects of focus of attention on baseball batting performance in players of differing skill levels. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 60-77.
  9. Davids, K., Button,  C.,  &  Bennett,  S. (2007). Increases in jump-and-reach height through an external focus of attention: A commentary. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 2, 285-288.
  10. Davids, K., Button,  C.,  &  Bennett,  S. (2008). Dynamics of skill acquisition: A constraints-led approach. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.
  11. Gray, R. (2004). Attending to the execution of a complex sensorimotor skill:  Expertise differences, choking and slumps. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 10, 42-54.
  12. Hodges, N. J., & Ford, P. (2007). Skillful attending, looking and thinking. Bewegung und Training, 1, 23-24.
  13. Land, W. M., Tenenbaum, G., Ward, P., & Marquardt, C. (2013). Examination of visual information as a mediator of external focus benefits. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 35, 250-259.
  14. Landin, D. K., Herbert, E.P., Fairweather, M. (1993). The effects of variable practice on  performance  of  a  basketball  skill. Research  Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64(2), 232-237.
  15. Lohse, K. R., Sherwood, D. E., & Healy, A. F. (2010). How changing the focus of attention affects performance, kinematics, and electromyography in dart throwing. Human movement science, 29(4), 542-555.
  16. Lohse, K. R., Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2012). Attentional focus affects movement efficiency. In N. Hodges, & Williams, M. A (Ed.), Skill acquisition in sport: research, theory & practice (2 edition ed., pp. 40-58.Skill acquisition in sport: research, theory & practice): Routledge.
  17. Magill, R. A. (1998). Knowledge is more than we can talk about:  Implicit learning in motor skill  acquisition. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69, 104-110.
  18. Marchant, D. C., Clough, P. J., & Crawshaw, M. (2007). The effects of attentional focusing strategies on novice dart throwing performance and their task experiences. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5(3), 291-303.
  19. Poolton, J. M., Maxwell, J.P., Masters, R.S.W., & Raab, M. (2006). Benefits of an external focus of attention:  Common  coding  or  conscious  processing? Journal  of  Sports  Sciences, 24, 89-99.
  20. Porter, J., Nolan, R., Ostrowski, E., & Wulf, G. (2010). Directing attention externally enhances agility performance: A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the efficacy of using verbal instructions to focus attention. Frontiers in psychology, 1, 206. doi: doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00216
  21. Prinz, W. (1990). A common coding approach to perception and action. In N. W. Prinz (Ed.), Relationships between perception and action (pp. 167-201.). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  22. Robins, M., Davids, K., Bartlett, R., & Wheat, J. S. (2007). Effects of attentional strategies, task expertise and anxiety on coordination of a discrete multi-articular action. Paper presented at the ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive
  23. Russell, R., Porter, J., & Campbell, O. (2014). An External Skill Focus Is Necessary to Enhance Performance. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 2, 37-46.
  24. Saemi, E., Porter, J. M., Wulf, G., Ghotbi-Varzaneh, A., & Bakhtiari, S. (2013). Adopting an external focus of attention facilitates motor learning in children with attention deficit hyper activity disorder. Kinesiology, 45(2), 179-185.
  25. Schlesinger, M., Porter, J., & Russell, R. (2013). An external focus of attention enhances manual tracking performance. Frontiers in psychology, 3, 591. doi: doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00591
  26. Sherwood, D. E., Lohse, K. R., & Healy, A. F. (2014). Judging Joint Angles and Movement Outcome: Shifting the Focus of Attention in Dart-Throwing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 40(5), 1903-1914.
  27. Vickers, J. N. (1996). Location  of  fixation,  landing  position  of  the  ball  and  spatial visual  attention  during  free  throw  shooting. International  Journal  of  Sports Vision, 3(1), 54-60.
  28. Wulf, G. (2007). Attention and motor skill learning: Human Kinetics.
  29. Wulf, G. (2013). Attentional focus and motor learning: a review of 15 years. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(1), 77-104.
  30. Wulf, G., & Lewthwaite, R. (2010). Effortless motor learning? An external focus of attention enhances movement effectiveness and efficiency. In B. Bruya (Ed.), Effortless attention: A new perspective in the cognitive science of attention and action (pp. 75-101.). Cambridge: MIT Press.
  31. Wulf, G., Höß, M., & Prinz, W. (1998). Instructions for motor learning: Differential effects of internal versus external focus of attention. Journal of motor behavior, 30(2), 169-179.
  32. Wulf, G., McNevin, N., & Shea, C. H. (2001). The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A, 54(4), 1143-1154.
  33. Zachry, T., Wulf, G., Mercer, J., & Bezodis, N. (2005). Increased movement accuracy and reduced EMG activity as the result of adopting an external focus of attention. Brain Research Bulletin, 67(4), 304-309.