بررسی ارتباط و مقایسه راهبردهای تنظیم شناختی هیجان ورزشی و آسیب پذیری روان‌شناختی ورزشکاران رشته های انفردی و گروهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه روان‌شناسی ورزشی، پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی

2 دکتری تخصصی روان شناسی عمومی

چکیده

بررسی تجربۀ هیجانی و شناختی ورزشکاران جهت پیشگیری از آسیب ­پذیری روان‌ شناختی اهمیت زیادی دارد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف مقایسه راهبردهای تنظیم شناختی هیجان ورزشی و آسیب ­پذیری روان‌شناختی ورزشکاران در ورزش ­های فردی و گروهی انجام گرفت. روش پژوهش حاضر علی مقایسه ­ای است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را کلیه ورزشکاران ورزش ­های انفرادی و گروهی در سال 1398 تشکیل می ­دادند. نمونه پژوهش 120 نفر از ورزشکاران رشته ­های ورزش انفرادی بودند که به روش نمونه ­گیری در دسترس از بین جمعیت ورزشکاران رشته­ های انفرادی انتخاب شدند. همچنین 120 نفر از ورزشکاران رشته ­های گروهی بر اساس سن، جنسیت و سابقه ورزشی با ورزشکاران انفرادی همتا شدند و به پرسش­نامه محقق ساخته راهبردهای تنظیم شناختی هیجان ورزشی و آسیب ­پذیری روان‌شناختی پاسخ دادند. داده­ های جمع‌آوری شده با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی و تحلیل واریانس چند متغیری مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل از ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد بین مؤلفه راهبردهای سازگارانه تنظیم شناختی هیجان ورزشی با افسردگی، اضطراب، استرس، رابطه منفی و معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین بین مؤلفه راهبردهای ناسازگارانه تنظیم شناختی هیجان ورزشی با افسردگی، اضطراب، استرس و نمره کل پرسش-نامه رابطه مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیری نشان داد بین ورزشکاران فردی و گروهی در مؤلفه ­های فاجعه سازی و ملامت دیگران، ملامت خویشتن، نشخوارگری فکری، افسردگی و اضطراب تفاوت وجود داشت. به‌ عبارت ‌دیگر ورزشکاران رشته ­های ورزشی انفرادی نمرات بالاتری به دست آوردند. سبک ­هایی که ورزشکاران برای تنظیم هیجانات شان به کار می ­برند، در تعیین آسیب ­پذیری روان‌شناختی آنان اهمیت دارند و تقویت راهبردهای سازگارانۀ تنظیم شناختی هیجانی باید به عنوان هدفی برای پی‌ریزی مداخلات و برنامه­ های آموزشی سلامت روان مورد توجه واقع شود. به‌طوری‌که ورزشکاران در مواقع ارزیابی ­شان از موقعیت ­ها، بتوانند از راهبردهایی استفاده نمایند که مناسب ­ترین جو هیجانی را در رقابت ایجاد کند

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Relationship and Comparison of Sport Emotion Cognitive Regulation and Psychological Vulnerability of Individual and Group Athletes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Aaghababa 1
  • javad bagiyan kole marzi 2
1 ُssrc
2 lecturer - consultant
چکیده [English]

It is important to examine the emotional and cognitive experience of athletes to prevent psychological harm. The aim of study was to compare the strategies of cognitive regulation of sports excitement and psychological vulnerability of athletes in individual and team sports. The statistical population of this study consisted of all individual and team athletes. The research sample consisted of 120 individual athletes who were randomly selected from the population of individual athletes and 120 athletes in the team sports category were matched with individual athletes based on age, gender, and athletic background .The subjects were answered to cognitive-regulatory strategies questionnaire and sports excitement and psychological vulnerability (DASS-21). The results correlation coefficient showed that there was a significant relationship between the components of cognitive regulation strategies of positive sports emotion with Anxiety, Depression. Stress negative and significant relationship. Also Between the components of Negative regulation strategies of positive sports emotion with Anxiety, Depression. Stress, The total score of the questionnaire. Positive and significant relationship. The data were analyzed using correlation coefficient and multivariate analysis of variance. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between individual and team athletes in the components of disaster and blame for others, self-blame, intellectual rumination, depression and anxiety. The approaches that athletes use to regulate their emotions are important in determining their psychosocial vulnerability, and strengthening the adaptive strategies of emotional cognitive regulation should be considered as a goal for the prevention of mental health interventions and training programs. It seems that the approaches that athletes use to regulate their emotions are important in determining their psychological vulnerability, and developing the adaptive strategies of emotional cognitive regulation can serve, as a goal for the prevention and interventions programs to help the athletes to create the most appropriate emotional atmosphere during competition situations

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adaptive strategies
  • maladaptive strategies
  • Anxiety
  • Depression. Stress
1. Abdi, S., Taban, S., and Ghaemian, A. (2012). Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire: validity and reliability of the persian translation of the CERQ (36-item). Procedia-Soc. Behavioral Sciences. 32, 2–7. [Link]
2. Aghababa. A., Mohammad Javad Bagian Kulemarzi. Development of Sport Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (SCERQ). Research project of the Sports Sciences Research Institute of Iran (SSRII) [Link]
3. Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). When are adaptive strategies most predictive of psychopathology? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121 (1), 276–281. [Link]
4. Allen, L., White, K., Barlow, D., Shear, M. K., Gorman, J., Woods S. (2010). Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) for panic disorder: Relationship of anxiety and depression comorbidity with treatment outcome. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32 (2), 185-92. [Link]
5. Anshel, M. H., & Wells, B. (2014). Personal and situational variables that describe coping with acute stress in competitive sport. The Journal of Social Psychology, 140 (4), 434-450. [Link]
6. Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., and Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric Properties of the 42-item and 21-item Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales in Clinical Groups and a Community Sample. Pychological Assessment, 10 (2), 176-181. [Link]
7. Delavar A. (2009). Research methods in psychology and educational sciences. Tehran: Virayesh; (In Persian). [Link]
8. Di Fabio, A., Saklofske, D. H. Comparing ability and self-report trait emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and personality traits in career decision. Personality and Individual Differences, 64, 174-8. [Link]
9. Feliu-Soler, A., Reche-Camba, E., Borràs, X., Pérez-Aranda, A., Andrés-Rodríguez, L., Peñarrubia-María, M. T., Navarro-Gil, M., García-Campayo, J., Bellón, J. A. and Luciano, J. V. (2017). Psychometric Properties of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ) in Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 2075. [Link]
10. Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., and Spinhoven, P. (2001). Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. Personality and Individual Differences. 30 (8), 1311–1327. [Link]
11. Salehian, H., Ghadiri, S. (2019). Anticipation of Emotion Regulation and Psychological Well-being on Athletic Performance of Professional and Semi-professional Athletes. Sport psychology Studies, 8 (29), 151-70. (In Persian). [Link]
12. Ghazvineh, M. H., Tojari, F., Zarei A. (2019). Investigating of Casual Relation of Emotional Intelligence and Spiritual Intelligence on Effectiveness of Sport Instructors: Mediation Role of Self-Efficacy. Sport Psychology Studies, 8(29), 39-60. (In Persian). [Link]
13. Goetzmanna, L., Klaghofera, R., Wagner-Hubera, R., Halterb, J., Boehlerb, A., Muellhauptb, B., & et al. (2007). Psychosocial vulnerability predicts psychosocial outcome after an organ transplant: Results of a prospective study with lung, liver, and bone-marrow patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 62 (1), 93-100. [Link]
14. Gross, J. J. (Ed.). (2014b). Handbook of emotion regulation (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford. [Link].
15. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: Guilford Press [Link]
16. Gross, J. J., Jazaieri, H. (2014). Emotion, Emotion Regulation, and Psychopathology: An Affective Science Perspective. Clinical Psychological Science, 2(4), 387–401. [Link]
17. Gulliver, A., Griffiths, K. M., Mackinnon, A., Batterham, P. J., & Stanimirovic, R. (2015). The mental health of Australian elite athletes. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(3), 255-261. [Link]
18. Ireland, M. J., Clough, B. A., and Day, J. J. (2017). The cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire: factorial, convergent, and criterion validity analyses of the full and short versions. Personality and Individual Differences, 110, 90–95. [Link]
19. Joormann, J., and Stanton, C. H. (2016). Examining emotion regulation in depression: a review and future directions. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 86, 35–49. [Link]
20. Kring, A., Johnson, S., Davison, G. C., & Neale, J. M. (2009). Abnormal psychology: The Science and Treatment of Psychological Disorders, John Wiley and Sons. [Link].
21. Martin GL, Vause T, Schwartzman L. (2005). Experimental studies of psychological interventions with athletes in competitions: why so few? Behavior Modification, 29 (4), 616-41. [Link]
22. Mousavi, A., Vaez Mousavi, M. K., Yaghubi, H. (2018). Explanation Athelete’s Psychological Health Dimensions Based on Cognitive Emotion Regulation Styles. Journal of Sport Management and Motor Behavior, 14 (27), 67-78. (In Persian). [Link]
23. Neacsiu A. D., Fang C. M., Rodriguez, M., Rosenthal M. Z. (2018). Suicidal Behavior and Problems with Emotion Regulation. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 48 (1), 52-74. [Link]
24. Neil, R., Hanton, S., Mellalieu, S. D., Fletcher, D. (2011). Competition stress and emotions in sport performers: The role of further appraisals. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12 (4), 460-70. [Link]
25. Nicholls, A. R., & Levy, A. R. (2015). The road to London 2012: The lived stressor, emotion, and coping experiences of gymnasts preparing for and competing at the world championships. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, (ahead-ofprint), 1-13. [Link]
26. Ochsner, K. N., Bunge, S. A., Gross, J. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2002). Rethinking feelings: an FMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 14(8), 1215-1229. [Link]
27. Paulus, D. J., Vanwoerden, S., Norton, P. J., Sharp, C. (2016). From neuroticism to anxiety: Examining unique contributions of three transdi agnostic vulnerability factors. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 38-43. [Link]
28. Silva, J. M, Metzler, J. (2012). Training professionals of sport psychology. Translated by VaezMousavi. Tehran: Nersi publicaion. (In Persian). [Link]
29. Taheri, A. (2016). Comparison of hyperactive mastery and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in successful and unsuccessful athletes in team and individual disciplines. Master Thesis in Physical Education and Sports Science. Hakim Sabzevari University. (In Persian). [Link]
30. Tamminen, K. A., & Crocker, P. R. (2013). I control my own emotions for the sake of the team: Emotional self-regulation and interpersonal emotion regulation among female high-performance curlers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14 (5), 737-747. [Link]
31. Tenenbaum, G., & Eklund, R. C. (Eds.). (2007). Handbook of sport psychology. New York, NY: Wiley. [Link]
32. Yazdanbakhsh, K., Bagiyan Koulemarz, M. J., Kariminejad, K., Khorshidi, M., Rashidi, F. (2018). Positive Emotional Memory Measurement in Adolescents: Psychometric Properties and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of